Genetic manipulation is the act of manipulating genes of an organism from the interactions and influences of other external organisms (more specifically, human-to-human experimentation) to suit an external purpose. Most of the time — if not all of the time — genetic manipulation is used to organically create (super)soldiers and experiments without the use of artificial products such as augmentation, although it can also be used for civilian roles, such as curing a potential disease down a familial generation, to engineering a new race altogether. Certain nations use genetic manipulation to combat birth defects normally common in human offspring; this is most commonly noted in nations that use artificial wombs and selective genetic trait-induction, such as the New Frenco Empire.
There are two main and standardized methods to genetic manipulation: singular emending, which edits the genes of haploid gametes and/or the zygote itself, and multi-emending, which employs edited DNA and RNA polymerase injected into the bloodstream and lymph nodes of one's body in order to individually edit cells. Multi-emending is noted as extremely painful once the nerve cells are reached, but yields a more quick result from an organism.
A rough form of genetic manipulation is utilized through radiation blasts, which mostly randomizes genetic code in order to strike a potentially benefiting mutation.
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Imperium of Sidhae
Sidh society has perfected various augmentation technologies including genetic manipulation to the level of an art, Sidh geneticists being capable of writing entire genetic codes and creating fully-functional multicellular life.
Most of their creations, however, are merely more subtle alterations or enhancements to existing organisms. For example, countless Terran species have been modified to various degrees as part of terraforming or species introduction projects. Other, commercially cultivated species are altered for improved productivity or useful side-properties (for example, edible cultivars that double as solar cells).
Sidhae also constantly re-engineer and upgrade their own genes as well. The usual method of alteration is nanites, which effectively serve as more efficient forms of retroviruses used in previous generations of gene therapy. The nanite-based alteration is more efficient in that it allows to target specific genes with high precision throughout the body, rewriting one's genome in situ. This often overlaps with nano-augmentation, which involves the use of nanites to generate artificial structures within the body that would otherwise be too complex and/or delicate to implant by conventional surgical means.
Genetic manipulation and other augmentation technologies are so commonplace throughout the Imperium as to have become an intrinsic part of the Sidh identity.